Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Note 3 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Note 3 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2021
Notes to Financial Statements  
Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]



1.  Principles of Consolidation


The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("GAAP") and include the accounts of Milestone Scientific and its wholly owned and majority owned subsidiaries, including, Wand Dental (wholly owned), Milestone Advanced Cosmetic (majority owned), and Milestone Medical (majority owned). All significant, intra-entity transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.


2. Basis of Presentation


The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of Milestone Scientific have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP) for interim financial information with the instructions for Form 10-Q and Article 8 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete annual financial statements. In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring entries) necessary to fairly present such interim results. Interim results are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations which may be expected for a full year or any subsequent period. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2020, included in Milestone Scientific's Annual Report on Form 10-K. 



3.  Reclassifications


Certain reclassification has been made to the 2020 unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements to conform to the 2021 unaudited condensed consolidated financial statement presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on net loss or cash flows as previously reported.


4.  Use of Estimates


The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions in determining the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The most significant estimates relate to the allowance for doubtful accounts, inventory valuation, cash flow assumptions regarding evaluations for impairment of long-lived assets and going concern considerations, and valuation allowances on deferred tax assets. Actual results could differ from those estimates.


5.  Revenue Recognition


The Company recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To perform revenue recognition for customer arrangements the Company performs the following five steps: 




identification of the promised goods or services in the contract;



determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract;



measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration;



allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations based on estimated standalone selling prices; and selling prices; and



recognition of revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies each performance obligation. A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer and is the unit of account in ASC 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”.


The Company derives its revenues from the sale of its products, primarily dental instruments, handpieces, and other related products. The Company sells its products through a global distribution network and that includes both exclusive and non-exclusive distribution agreements with related and third parties.


Revenue from product sales is recognized upon transfer of control of a product to a customer, generally upon date of shipment. For certain arrangements where the shipping terms are freight-on-board (FOB) shipping, revenue is recognized upon delivery. The Company has no obligation on product sales for any installation, set-up, or maintenance, these being the responsibility of the buyer. Milestone Scientific's only obligation after transfer of control, except for specific contracts and arrangements that provide for customer right to return provisions, is the normal commercial warranty against manufacturing defects if the alleged defective unit is returned within the warranty period. 


Sales Returns


The Company records allowances for product returns as a reduction of revenue at the time product sales are recorded. Several factors are considered in determining whether an allowance for product returns is required, including the customers’ return rights and the Company’s historical experience with returns and the amount of product in the distribution channel not consumed by end users and subject to return. The Company relies on historical return rates to estimate returns. In the future, if any of these factors and/or the history of product returns change, adjustments to the allowance for product returns may be required.


 Financing and Payment


Our payment terms differ by geography and customer, but payment is generally required within 90 days from the date of shipment or delivery.


Disaggregation of Revenue


We operate in two operating segments: dental and medical. Therefore, results of our operations are reported on a dental and medical basis for purposes of segment reporting, consistent with internal management reporting. See Note 11 for revenues by geographical market, and product category for the six months ended June 30, 2021


6.  Variable Interest Entities


A variable interest entity ("VIE") is an entity that either (i) has insufficient equity to permit the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support or (ii) has equity investors who lack the characteristics of a controlling financial interest. A VIE is consolidated by its primary beneficiary. The primary beneficiary has both the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the entity's economic performance and the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the entity that could potentially be significant to the VIE. 


Because Milestone Scientific has a variable interest in Milestone China it considered the guidance in ASC 810, “Consolidation” as it relates to determining whether Milestone China is a VIE and, if so, identifying the primary beneficiary. Milestone Scientific would be considered the primary beneficiary of the VIE if it has both of the following characteristics:



Power Criterion: The power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance; and


Losses/Benefits Criterion: The obligation to absorb losses that could potentially be significant or the right to receive benefits that could potentially be significant to the VIE.


Milestone Scientific does not have the ability to control the activities that most significantly impact Milestone China's economics and, therefore, the power criterion has not been met. Management has concluded that Milestone Scientific is not the primary beneficiary under ASC 810. See Note 6.


7.  Cash and Cash Equivalents


Milestone Scientific considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. As of  June 30, 2021, and December 31, 2020 Milestone Scientific has  approximately $14.8 million  and $13.1 million, respectively, of investments with short term maturities classified as a cash equivalent.  At times, such investments, may be more than the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insurance limit.


8.  Accounts Receivable


Milestone Scientific sells a significant amount of its product on credit terms to its major distributors. Milestone Scientific estimates losses from the inability of its customers to make payments on amounts billed. Most credit sales are due within 90 days from invoicing. There have not been any significant credit losses incurred to date. As of June 30, 2021, and December 31, 2020, accounts receivable was recorded, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $280,864 and $10,000 respectively.


9.  Inventories


Inventories principally consist of finished goods and component parts stated at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out method) or net realizable value. Inventory quantities on hand are reviewed on a quarterly basis and a provision for excess, slow moving, defective, and obsolete inventory is recorded if required based on past and expected future sales, potential technological obsolescence, and product expiration requirements. The valuation allowance creates a new cost basis for the inventory, and it is not subsequently marked up through a reduction in the valuation allowance based on any changes in the underlying facts and circumstances. When the valuation allowance is initially recorded, the increase to the allowance is recognized as an increase in cost of sales. The valuation allowance is only reduced if or when the underlying inventory is sold or destroyed, at which time cost of sales recognized would include the previous adjusted cost basis. As of June 30,2021, and December 31, 2020, inventory was recorded net of a valuation allowance for slow moving and defective inventory of approximately $450,000, and $453,000, respectively. See Note 4.


10.  Equity Method Investments


Investments in which Milestone Scientific can exercise significant influence, but do not control, are accounted for under the equity method of accounting and are included within long-term assets in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. Under this method of accounting, Milestone Scientific's share of the net earnings or losses of the investee is presented below the income tax line in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. Milestone Scientific evaluates its equity method investments whenever events or changes in circumstance indicate that the carrying amounts of such investments may be impaired. If a decline in the value of an equity method investment is determined to be other than temporary, a loss is recorded in earnings in the current period. See Note 6.


11.  Furniture, Fixture and Equipment  


Equipment is recorded at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation expense is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range from two to seven years. The costs of maintenance and repairs are charged to expense, as incurred. 


12.  Intangible Assets – Patents and Developed Technology


Patents are recorded at cost to prepare and file the applicable documents with the US Patent Office, or internationally with the applicable governmental office in the respective country. The costs related to these patents are being amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the patent. Patents and other developed technology acquired from another business entity will be amortized based on the estimated useful life of the patent. These patents and developed technology are recorded at the acquisition cost.    


13.  Impairment of Long-Lived Assets


Long-lived assets with finite lives are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. The Company’s impairment review process is based upon an estimate of future undiscounted cash flow. Factors the Company considers that could trigger an impairment review include the following: 



significant under performance relative to expected historical or projected future operating results;


significant changes in the manner of our use of the acquired assets or the strategy for our overall business;


significant negative industry or economic trends; and


significant technological changes, which would render the technology obsolete.


Recoverability of assets that will continue to be used in the Company's operations is measured by comparing the carrying value to the future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset or asset group. Future undiscounted cash flows include estimates of future revenues, driven by market growth rates, and estimated future costs.


14. Note Payable


On April 27, 2020, the Company, was granted a loan (the “Loan”) from Savoy Bank. in the aggregate amount of approximately $276,000, pursuant to the Paycheck Protection Program (the “PPP”) under Division A, Title I of the CARES Act, which was enacted March 27, 2020.


15.  Research and Development


Research and development costs, which consist principally of new product development costs payable to third parties, are expensed as incurred. Advance payments received for the research are amortized to expense either as services are performed or over the relevant service period using the straight-line method.


16.  Income Taxes


Milestone Scientific accounts for income taxes pursuant to the asset and liability method which requires deferred income tax assets and liabilities to be computed for temporary differences between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities that will result in taxable or deductible amounts in the future based on enacted tax laws and rates applicable to the periods in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. See Note 10.       


On June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, we had no uncertain tax positions that required recognition in the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. Milestone Scientific's policy is to recognize interest and penalties on unrecognized tax benefits in income tax expense in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. No interest and penalties are present for periods open. Tax returns for the 2017, 2018, and 2019 years are subject to audit by federal and state jurisdictions. 


17.  Basic and diluted net loss per common share


Milestone Scientific presents “basic” earnings (loss) per common share applicable to common stockholders and, if applicable, “diluted” earnings (loss) per common share applicable to common stockholders pursuant to the provisions of ASC 260, “Earnings Per Share”. Basic earnings (loss) per common share is calculated by dividing net income or loss applicable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding and to be issued during each period. The calculation of diluted earnings per common share is like that of basic earnings per common share, except that the denominator is increased to include the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if all potentially dilutive common shares, such as those issuable upon the exercise of stock options and warrants were issued during the period.


Since Milestone Scientific had net losses in the six months ended June 30, 2021, and 2020, the assumed effects of the exercise of potentially dilutive outstanding stock options, and warrants, were not included in the calculation as their effect would have been anti-dilutive. Such outstanding options, and warrants totaled 8,015,193 and 7,686,628 on June 30, 2021, and 2020, respectively. 


18.  Fair Value of Financial Instruments


Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants in the principal market at the measurement date (exit price). We are required to classify fair value measurements in one of the following categories:



Level 1 inputs which are defined as quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the reporting entity can access at the measurement date.


Level 2 inputs which are defined as inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the assets or liabilities, either directly or indirectly.


Level 3 inputs are defined as unobservable inputs for the assets or liabilities.


Financial assets and liabilities are classified based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Our assessment of the significance of an input to the fair value measurement requires judgment and may affect the valuation of the fair value of assets and liabilities and their placement within the fair value hierarchy levels. As of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company does not have any assets or liabilities that were measured at fair value on a recurring basis. The carrying amounts reported in the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements for current assets and current liabilities approximate the fair value because of the immediate or short-term maturities of the financial instruments. 


19.  Stock-Based Compensation


Milestone Scientific accounts for stock-based compensation under ASC 718, "Compensation - Stock Compensation" (“ASC 718”). ASC 718 requires all share-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options and restricted stock units, to be recognized in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations over the vesting period based on the grant-date fair values.


20. Leases


At the inception of an arrangement, we determine whether an arrangement is, or contains, a lease. An arrangement is, or contains, a lease if the arrangement conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. Leases with a term greater than one year are generally recognized on the balance sheet as right-of-use assets and current and non-current lease liabilities, as applicable. We have elected not to recognize on the balance sheet leases with terms of 12 months or less. We typically only include the initial lease term in our assessment of a lease arrangement. Options to extend a lease are not included in our assessment unless there is reasonable certainty that we will renew.


Finance and operating lease right-of-use assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset over the lease term, and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. These assets and obligations are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the present value of lease payments, net of incentives, over the lease term. The interest rate implicit in our leases is typically not readily determinable. As a result, we utilize our incremental borrowing rate, which reflects the fixed rate at which we could borrow on a collateralized basis the amount of the lease payments in the same currency, for a similar term, in a similar economic environment. 


We evaluate the classification of our leases as either finance leases or operating leases. Leases that are economically similar to the purchase of assets are generally classified as finance leases; otherwise, the leases are classified as operating leases. Lease cost for our operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Included in lease cost are any variable lease payments incurred in the period that are not included in the initial lease liability and lease payments incurred in the period for any leases with an initial term of 12 months or less. See Note 14. 


22.  Recent Accounting Pronouncements


Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements


In December 2019, FASB issued ASU 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes”, which clarifies the accounting treatment for the accounting tax aspects relating, in part, to the intra-period allocations and foreign subsidiaries. ASU 2019-12 is effective for all entities with fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. The adoption of this standard as of January 1, 2021, did not have a material effect on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statement presentation.


Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements


In June 2016, the FASB issued a new standard ASU No.2016-13, “Financial Instruments – Credit Losses” (Topic 326). The new standard is intended to replace the incurred loss impairment methodology in current GAAP with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. It will be effective for all smaller reporting entities for fiscal years and interim periods, beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company is analyzing the impact of the adoption of this standard.


In January 2020, FASB issued ASU 2020-01, “Investments—Equity Securities (Topic 321), Investments—Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323), and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815)”, which, generally, provides guidance for investments in entities accounted for under the equity method of accounting. ASU 2020-01 is effective for all entities with fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods therein. The Company is analyzing the impact of the adoption of this standard; however, the adoption is not expected to have a material effect on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statement presentation.


In August 2020, FASB issued ASU 2020-06, “Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity”, which, generally, provides guidance for accounting regarding derivatives relating to entities common stock and earnings per share. ASU 2020-06 is effective for all entities with fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods therein. The Company is analyzing the impact of the adoption of this standard; however, the adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material effect on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statement.


In May 2021, FASB issued ASU 2021-04, Earnings Per Share (topic 260), Debt — Modifications and Extinguishments (Subtopic 470-50), Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718) and Derivatives and Hedging – Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40) – Issuer’s Accounting for Certain Modifications or Exchanges of Freestanding Equity-Classified Written Call Options, which provides guidance of a modification or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that remains equity classified after modification or exchange as (1) an adjustment to equity and, if so, the related earnings per share (EPS) effects, if any, or (2) an expense and, if so, the manner and pattern of recognition. The amendments in this ASU are effective January 1, 2022, including interim periods. Early adoption is permitted. The Company will apply the amendments prospectively to modifications or exchanges occurring on or after January 1, 2022. The Company will evaluate the impact of ASU 2021-04 on any future changes to the terms and conditions of its warrants.